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Diabetes, its types, causes, and symptoms

1. What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition where blood sugar levels become too high. When this happens, the body does not produce enough insulin, which is necessary to convert glucose (a type of sugar) into energy. Insulin helps move glucose out of the bloodstream and into cells throughout the body where it can be used as fuel. If blood sugar levels remain too high, the pancreas may stop producing insulin altogether. In addition to causing fatigue, hunger, thirst, blurred vision, frequent urination, and numbness or tingling in the hands and feet, high blood sugar levels can damage many organs and lead to serious complications including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness, nerve damage, and amputation.

2. Types of Diabetes

There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body stops making insulin. People who have Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin injections daily to stay alive. Type 2 diabetes is caused by problems with how the body uses insulin. Over time, the body becomes less able to use insulin effectively and eventually loses its ability to make any at all. Both types of diabetes can occur at any age, although they are most often diagnosed in people over 40 years old.

3. Symptoms of Diabetes

Symptoms of diabetes vary depending on what kind of diabetes someone has. However, some symptoms tend to appear together. These include:

• Frequent urination

• Excessive thirst

• Fatigue

• Blurred vision

• Numbness or tingling of the extremities

• Increased appetite

• Weight loss

• Slow healing of wounds

4 Causes of diabetes

1. Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is the first step towards developing type 2 diabetes. When insulin levels drop, blood sugar rises. In turn, the pancreas produces less insulin, causing blood sugar to rise even higher. Over time, this cycle becomes self-perpetuating until the body’s cells become resistant to insulin.

2. Obesity

Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance. Fat cells produce hormones called adipokines that interfere with the way insulin works. Adipose tissue also stores excess calories as triglycerides, which contribute to obesity.

3. Genetics

Genetics play a role in whether someone develops diabetes. If both parents have diabetes, their children have a 50% chance of inheriting the disease. If only one parent has diabetes, then the child has a 25% chance of inheriting it.

4. Diet

The diet we eat affects our risk of developing diabetes. A high-fat diet increases the amount of fat stored in the liver. This causes the liver to release fatty acids into the bloodstream, increasing insulin resistance. Eating foods rich in refined grains and added sugars increases the production of glucose, which contributes to insulin resistance.

5. Stress

Stressful situations can make us feel anxious and trigger the release of adrenaline. Adrenaline raises blood pressure and heart rate, making it harder for the body to use insulin properly.

6. Alcohol

Alcohol consumption may lead to weight gain and increased abdominal fat. Excessive alcohol intake also reduces insulin sensitivity.

7 Sedentary lifestyle

A lifestyle without any exercise or least physical movement like doing an office desk job for long hours and then coming home and sleeping would hinder the production of insulin and trigger diabetes.

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